The new "Redwood" standard updates the original 5 genera and 8 types of 33 species of redwood to the current 29 species, of which there are two changes in the Diospyros spp .:

1. Ponce ebony in the ebony category was cancelled;

2. Ebony ebony is classified as striped ebony.

What is the difference and connection between ebony and striped ebony, and what are their characteristics?

â–² Ebony

â–² Striped ebony

Literally, striped ebony, as the name suggests, is striped ebony. Before the "Redwood" national standard was issued, many materials classified striped ebony as ebony.

Although striped ebony and ebony belong to the Diospyros genus of the Persimmon family, there is a difference between them. The difference lies mainly in the color of the wood: the heartwood of ebony is black, and the heartwood of striped ebony is black or chestnut There are light-colored stripes.

Experts specifically pointed out that the texture of striped ebony is light stripes on black wood, not black stripes on light wood.

The "Redwood" national standard separates striped ebony from the ebony category and becomes a category alone, but there are still many businesses on the market that classify striped ebony as ebony.


According to the "Redwood" international standard, the necessary conditions for becoming ebony are:

1. Diospyros spp.

2. The wood structure is very fine to fine, with an average pipe chord diameter not greater than 150μm.

3. When the wood moisture content is 12%, the air-dry density is greater than 0.90 g / cm³.

4. The heartwood of wood is black.

According to the new "Redwood" national standard, there are two species of ebony, namely thick-petaled ebony and ebony.

Thick Petal Ebony

Thick-petal ebony is mainly produced in tropical West Africa and belongs to trees with a tree height of 15-18 meters.

Thick-petal ebony is only loose pores. When mature, the heartwood is all black, sometimes with dark brown stripes.

The persimmon wood with dark black core material is called "ebony" in China and "ebony" in Japan. If the core material is not obvious, it can only be called persimmon.

Thick petal ebony has a high density, about 1.05 g / cm³, which is difficult to process and has a clear passivation effect on the knife.

Thick-petal ebony has a high oil content and has a great influence on the wood bonding during processing. Therefore, it is mostly used as small pieces of inlays, musical instruments or works of art, and is deeply loved by consumers because of its oily appearance.


Ebony is mainly produced in Sri Lanka and southern India , and is also commonly known as "black wood".

The ebony leaves resemble palms, the trunk is extremely straight, and some are more than ten feet long, and the hermaphrodite.

The wood material is hard and heavy, the texture is delicate, and the corrosion resistance and durability are strong.

Ebony is loose-porous wood, and the growth ring is not obvious.

The core material is distinct from the sapwood. The core material is all black and light-colored stripes are rare.

The air-dry density is greater than 0.85 g / cm³ and usually sinks in water.

The old ebony is pure black like ink, shiny like lacquer, and its shape is closer to that of red sandalwood, so it is known as "black sandalwood".

Although most of ebony is hollow, it is difficult to produce large materials, but ebony wood is hard and heavy, with bright materials, fine wood grain, and corrosion and insect resistance. Therefore, it has been regarded as a precious wood and one of the main materials for traditional Chinese furniture .

In the process of making furniture, ebony is often used in combination with precious materials such as porcine bamboo, boxwood, ivory, etc. It is an excellent material for the old "small utensils".

Striped ebony

According to the "Redwood" international standard, the necessary conditions to become striped ebony are:

1. Diospyros spp.

2. The wood structure is very fine to fine, with an average pipe chord diameter not greater than 150μm.

3. When the wood moisture content is 12%, the air-dry density is greater than 0.90 g / cm³.

4. The color of the heartwood of the wood is black or chestnut brown with light stripes between them.

According to the new "Redwood" national standard, there are three tree species that belong to striped ebony, namely Sulawesi ebony, Philippine ebony, and hair medicine ebony that has just been classified.

Sulawesi ebony

Sulawesi Striped Ebony is named after it is mainly distributed on Sulawesi Island in Indonesia. The Chinese product name is "Mackath Ebony", also known as "Indonesian Ebony" or "Black Cloud Wood".

Sulawesi ebony is the best among ebony. It, together with bird of paradise and red dragon fish, is called the three national treasures of Indonesia . It has the reputation of "black pearl in wood" and is internationally recognized as the top furniture material.

Sulawesi ebony is a large tree with a tree height of up to 40 meters, a branch height of 10 meters to 20 meters, and a tree diameter of 80 centimeters to 100 centimeters.

The wood is loose, there is a clear difference between the core material and the sapwood: the core material is black or chestnut brown, with dark and dark stripes, the stripes are also black and chestnut brown, and the stripes are neat; the sapwood is yellowish white or light reddish brown .

Sulawesi wood is hard and compact, with an average air-dry density of 1.09 g / cm³, and the highest at 1.14 g / cm³.

Sulawesi ebony has great compressive strength, flexural strength and shear strength, and some performance indicators are even better than "King of Wood" red sandalwood.

Ebony philippines

Philippine ebony is mainly distributed in the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Taiwan , so it is also called "Philippine ebony" or "Taiwan ebony".

Filipino ebony belongs to middle arbor, with scattered wood and obvious difference between core material and sapwood: heartwood is black or chestnut brown, and occasionally has a "black" color, with black and chestnut brown stripes, and the stripes are chaotic; sapwood is light reddish brown.

The air-dry density is slightly smaller than that of Sulawesi ebony, between 0.78 ~ 1.09 g / cm³.

In the domestic mahogany furniture and veneer industry, Philippine stripe ebony is often used as a raw material for precious crafts, carvings, musical instruments, veneer, and furniture.

In the production of furniture, Philippine ebony is suitable for making Ming and Qing styles, the style of the Republic of China, and furniture styles with some Western classic styles. Ming Yun Qing Feng, quaint fashion can be well reflected.

As the Indonesian government's export controls and Sulawesi's ebony resources are increasingly scarce, Philippine ebony is likely to gradually replace Sulawesi ebony and become the mainstream of the market.

Hairy ebony

Hairy medicine ebony is a kind of precious mahogany mainly produced in the Philippines. It is an arbor with a tree height of 15-18 meters.

The wood is loose, the core material is all black and oily, and the air-dry density is 0.90 ~ 0.97 g / cm³.

Hairy medicine ebony has no acid odor, which can be used to distinguish black rosewood and hairy medicine ebony.

The hair medicine ebony has excellent processing performance, is easy to turn and sculpt, and has a black gloss and oiliness.

Hairy medicine ebony is suitable for making high-grade mahogany furniture such as official hat chairs, palace chairs, sofas, dining tables, etc., or bracelets, figures or animal portrait crafts.

Whether it is ebony or striped ebony, it is the standard mahogany listed in the "Redwood" national standard, but now ebony is mentioned on the market, but it is always confused with gloomy wood .

Gloomy Wood and Ebony

Gloomy wood and ebony wood are darker in color, usually black or dark brown; they are both shiny, woody oily, insect-resistant and rot-resistant, heavy in texture, and do not fade.

It is precisely because of the dark color of the whole body, the dark wood was first called ebony in the Sichuan area, and later spread, the ebony became the common name of the dark wood.

Where is the gloomy wood?

Gloomy woods are actually carbonized woods , and their appearance is mainly due to geological disasters in ancient times.

The trees in the virgin forest suffered sudden geological disasters, buried in the sediment of the river bed or the dark layer of hypoxia, after thousands of years or even tens of thousands of years of nature's abrasion , The wood-like non-wood plant "mummy".

â–² Fir gloomy wood

â–² Jinnan overcast wood

Gloomy wood is not a tree species, but the collective name of a variety of wood that has been buried in the ground for a long time and is undecayed and can be used as an implement.

There are many kinds of them, and the main identifications are: cypress, fir, nanmu, wild litchi, kuzi, green nan, kidney fruit and so on.

Gloomy wood has the quaintness of wood and the charm of stone. Its texture is solid and heavy, the color is black and luxurious, the section is smooth and delicate, and it is natural. It is a precious natural cultural heritage.

In view of the confusing terminology in the market, it is easy to buy the wrong materials, and how to distinguish ebony from gloomy wood has become an essential skill.

Color form

The ebony core material is black and has a metallic luster; the dark wood color is carbon black, and the appearance is cracked and corroded.

â–² Cracks on the ebony surface

Judging the number of years

The approximate age of the wood can be judged by the degree of carbonization of the appearance of the wood, the condition of the cross-section after grinding and the feel.

Most of the gloomy wood has been buried underground for thousands of years.

Microscopic features

The ebony tube hole can be seen under the naked eye, and under the magnifying glass, you can see that there are many white spots on the ebony cross section.

Odor judgment

Ebony has no fragrance and no sour smell; after the heavy wood is chiseled, you can smell a slight fragrance of wood chips.

Submerged experiment

Take a small piece of wood and put it in the water. The heavy wood can easily sink to the bottom, and it becomes darker and brighter when it encounters water.

Although gloomy wood has similar characteristics to ebony's color, gloss, oiliness, insect resistance, and hard texture, but there is little research on the physical and mechanical properties of gloomy wood, can it be replaced by ebony for large-scale wooden components It is not easy to make a conclusion, but in making furniture and crafts, gloomy wood can have a place.

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