(1) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Polyvinyl chloride plastic is a versatile thermoplastic. Different varieties can be produced due to the difference in the amount and type of auxiliary materials such as plasticizers and stabilizers added to the polyvinyl chloride resin. Such as rigid polyvinyl chloride, soft polyvinyl chloride, semi-rigid polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride foam and artificial leather.
Polyvinyl chloride plastic has good chemical stability, is not afraid of acid and alkali, and is resistant to water and has good electrical insulation properties. Rigid PVC plastic pipes can transport corrosive gases and liquids, as well as tap water and gas. Soft PVC plastic, soft and flexible, can be used as bedclothes, raincoats, umbrellas, bags, wallets, soles, children's toys and other daily necessities.
Polyvinyl chloride foam, foamed sandals, slippers, etc. can be injected through certain processes. Artificial leather can be used as a school bag, briefcase, suitcase, wallet, sofa fabric and imitation sheepskin pants.
Polyvinyl chloride has many excellent properties and is widely used, but it also has many drawbacks. Such as poor thermal stability, easy to decompose, hard surface, brittle and so on. In order to overcome these shortcomings and expand the application range of polyvinyl chloride plastics, there are many improvement methods. Two of them are introduced as follows:
1, vinyl chloride.
Vinyl acetate copolymerization, because of the addition of vinyl acetate, acts as an internal plasticizer in the copolymer, which makes it have good fluidity and convenient processing. Typical products such as vinegar compact discs, adhesives, etc.
2, perchloroethylene.
The introduction of chlorine atoms into the polyvinyl chloride molecules becomes (poly) perchloroethylene. The temperature used is higher than that of ordinary polyvinyl chloride. Generally, the sheet is formed into a sheet by a rolling process, and is used in a large amount for cable coating, insulating coating, and bonding. Agents and synthetic fibers.
(2) Polyethylene (PE)
Polyethylene plastic is currently the most produced thermoplastic and an important product in the petrochemical industry. It is odorless, non-toxic, milky white, soft, smooth, translucent, somewhat like paraffin, but much tougher than paraffin. It has good corrosion resistance, is insoluble in any solvent below 60 °C, is not afraid of weak acid and weak base, and has good insulation for high frequency current.
Polyethylene plastics have the lowest water vapor transmission capacity and a higher organic vapor transmission rate. Using this property, the fruit can be preserved with a plastic film of polyethylene; however, it is not suitable for containing spices, alcohol, balsam, etc.
Polyethylene is generally classified into high pressure polyethylene, low pressure polyethylene and medium pressure polyethylene according to the method of its synthesis. High-pressure polyethylene has excellent electrical insulation and chemical resistance, and is soft, tough and transparent. It is suitable for the production of film, cable sheath and food packaging bags, daily packaging bags and various utensils. The strength, hardness and corrosion resistance of low-pressure polyethylene are better than high-pressure polyethylene. It is suitable for all kinds of plates, tubes, containers, mechanical parts and various edible cans, plastic tea cups, hot water bottle shells, enamel and other daily necessities; The mechanical properties, electrical insulation properties and corrosion resistance of pressed polyethylene are better than low pressure polyethylene. Polyethylene is added to the foaming agent and can also be made into polyethylene foam.
The shortcoming of polyethylene is poor heat resistance, and the long-term use temperature is 37-80 °C.
(3) Polypropylene (PP)
Polypropylene is a thermoplastic. Due to its excellent performance, its raw material, propylene, is a petrochemical product with abundant resources, so its development is extremely rapid.
Polypropylene is colorless, odorless, non-toxic, and its specific gravity is the lightest of the current plastic varieties. It has high heat resistance and can be used at 100 °C under severe conditions. It can be used continuously at 110 °C under low load. It does not deform under the action of no external force at 150 °C. It is the highest temperature used in resin. . The surface of the product is smooth, and the gas permeability and water permeability are low. In addition to fuming nitric acid and fuming sulfuric acid, it is resistant to corrosion by other chemicals. Extensibility, stress resistance is particularly good, wear resistance is better than polystyrene, but not as good as polyvinyl chloride.
Polypropylene plastics are highly adaptable to processing. It can be used for blow molding and vacuum forming to manufacture bottles, food cans, and extrusion, and to manufacture pipes, valve fittings, sinks, and pump casings. Polypropylene plastic film is most suitable for moisture-proof packaging. Polypropylene can also be made into fibers, drawn into monofilaments, flat yarns, flat strips, and the like. Flat strips can replace cane strips; flat yarns can be used as bandages, and various bags can be woven and woven. In particular, the ropes made of it are particularly suitable for the use of cables for the docking of various vessels. It is light and powerful, not easy to rot, and has a longer service life than brown rope. Polypropylene plastics have poor aging resistance and are brittle.
(4) Polystyrene (PS)
Polystyrene is also a common and widely used thermoplastic, commonly known as rigid plastic. Features are transparent, beautiful, hard, insulated and corrosion resistant. The production cost is low and the processing is convenient, and it is widely used for producing various large-capacity appliances. Polystyrene plastics are used to make high-frequency electrical equipment, radar equipment, radio components, and insulation materials for capacitors made of mica, because of their good electrical insulation properties. In addition, it can also be used to produce toys, toothbrushes, tea trays, sugar boxes, wall lamps and other daily necessities. Polystyrene plastic is second only to plexiglass in light transmission, better than ordinary silica glass. A foam made of polystyrene, 1/30 is used as a sound-insulating packaging material, and because its specific gravity is only 1/30 of that of water, the lifebuoy made of it has a large buoyancy and a high degree of safety. It can also be used as a packaging pad for televisions, instruments, and watches only. However, polystyrene as a material application has its limitations, such as brittleness and low heat resistance; the heat resistance temperature generally does not exceed 80 ° C, and it cannot be applied in boiling water, and oil resistance is not good.
In order to improve the heat resistance of polystyrene and the weakness of brittleness, copolymerization with acrylonitrile improves the softening point of the copolymer, improves chemical resistance, stress resistance and crack resistance, and improves mechanical properties (general name) Modified polystyrene).
(5) aBS plastic
aBS plastic is made of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. The full name should be: "acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer aBS". To simplify the first letter of the English name of the three monomers, name it aBS plastic.
aBS is a kind. Three-in-one plastic, which combines the common characteristics of three monomers. Acrylonitrile gives it a certain hardness and good chemical resistance; Butadiene gives it toughness and impact strength; Styrene makes it have Good processability and dyeability. Therefore, aBS plastic has the advantages of being hard, tough, and rigid, and it is not easy to be deformed during use. In addition, aBS plastic has the characteristics of being electroplatable and made of aBS plastic. Various plastic daily necessities, after chrome plating and nickel plating, are like metal products, which are very beautiful and beautiful. After plating, the surface hardness of the product can be further enhanced and the plastic can be prevented from aging.
ABS plastics also have excellent properties such as cold resistance, wear resistance, chemical corrosion resistance and good crack resistance. They are widely used in electrical equipment, automobile instruments, various handles, telephone casings and other equipment. After electroplating, it is shaped like a stainless steel part. The disadvantage is that it is opaque.
(6) Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMa)
Polymethyl methacrylate plastic, trade name is plexiglass, its name comes from its excellent optical properties, high transparency, light transmittance greater than 92%, not only better than other plastics, 10% higher than ordinary silica glass . It can also pass most of the ultraviolet light and part of the infrared light, which is much higher than ordinary glass. Even if it is more than one meter thick, it can clearly see the opposite thing through it. Therefore, it is indispensable for manufacturing optical instruments. s material. Because of its good refractive index, the decorations made with it are crystal clear and beautiful. Plexiglass is also known as unbreakable glass and is much stronger than silicon glass. When the thickness is 3-10 mm, the strength of the plexiglass is 7-8 times that of the silica glass. Plexiglass has good insulation and low water absorption. The aging resistance is also good. Generally, it has no significant change in appearance and performance after being placed outdoors for 4 years. It weighs only half the weight of ordinary silica glass, but its compressive capacity is 10 times higher than that of ordinary glass. Its ointment is that the surface hardness is not high, the scratching is poor, easy to scratch, scratches, hair, in this respect is far less than ordinary silica glass.
(7) Polyamide plastic (Pa)
Polyamide plastics have strong abrasion resistance, and some varieties are even superior to steel and general steel. The parts made of it have good sound absorbing properties, low noise during operation, and high strength and toughness. It is resistant to corrosion by weak acids, weak bases and general solvents, but has poor corrosion resistance to strong acids, strong bases and phenols; oil resistance is extremely good. 1 ton of polyamide plastic can replace 8 tons of copper. It can be machined or cast directly. In addition to being used in a large number of machine parts, it can also be drawn. A filament with a diameter of 1 mm can lift a weight of 100 kilograms continuously. Using it as a cord fabric for a tire can make the tire burden suddenly add a significant force. The parachute made with it works well. The fishing line and fishing nets made with it are transparent in the sea water, making the fish difficult to see and resistant to seawater and bacteria. The polyamide is added to the fiber to form a reinforced plastic.
There are many varieties of polyamide plastics. Now introduce the common ones separately:
1. Polyamide 66 (nylon 66).
Polyamide 66 is the earliest synthetic polyamide variety, which is formed by polycondensation of hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid. Polyamide 66 is a white translucent tough solid with a melting point of 265 ° C, high tensile strength, tear resistance, dimensional stability, certain elasticity and electrical insulation properties. It is harder than polyamide 6 and can be spun. For civil fishing nets, cables, and bristles, it can also be extruded and injection molded into bearings, gears, and electrical parts.
2. Polyamide 6 (nylon 6).
The properties of polyamide 6 are similar to those of polyamide 66, but the water absorption rate is higher, the melting point is slightly lower, the mechanical strength and wear resistance are good, and the elasticity, elongation and impact strength are also good. The use is also substantially the same as for polyamide 66, with 90% of its production for fibers and 10% for plastics. Polyamide 6 plastic is mainly used to produce pipes, rods, large gears, bushings, etc.
3. Polyamide 1010 (nylon 1010).
Polyamide 1010 is a translucent tough solid with a slightly smaller specific gravity than polyamide and a slightly better moisture absorption and cold resistance (-60 ° C) than polyamide. The coefficient of thermal expansion is small, the bending does not break when impacted, and the imitation twisted wire can be extruded for industrial filter cloth, brush and the like. Injection molding and extrusion molding of gears and bearings can replace non-ferrous metal mechanical parts for the textile and printing industries. 15% graphite filled polyamide 1010 can be used as a fan bearing.
In addition, polyamide 12 can be used to form a film; polyamide 9 can be used for hoses, films and the like. In short, there are many varieties of polyamide plastic (nylon), we should distinguish between performance uses and separate recycling.
Polyamide plastics can also be copolymerized with other materials. For example, in order to increase its mechanical strength, 30% of glass fiber is used as reinforced nylon to make various mechanical parts, which can be widely used in industrial production.
(8) Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Among the existing plastic varieties, PTFE is the best in corrosion resistance and temperature resistance, and is known as the "plastic king". Its chemical stability exceeds that of glass, ceramics, stainless steel and alloy steel, even more than gold and platinum. Putting gold in "Aqua regia" (a mixture of nitric acid and three parts of hydrochloric acid) will also be eroded, and Teflon plastic will not deteriorate even if it is cooked in boiling "Aqua regia" for a few hours. .
Teflon plastic is particularly excellent in electrical insulation. It is not affected by frequency and temperature. It can be used at room temperature and at a high temperature of 250 °C for a long time. Maintains good insulation even under wet conditions. However, due to the high melting point of polytetrafluoroethylene (melting point 227 ° C), the process of processing into plastic products is more complicated and the cost is relatively high.
(9) Acetate plastic (Ca)
Acetate fiber is a colorless, odorless flake and granular material made from cellulose and acetic acid. It has thermoplasticity and is slow to burn

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