As an unconventional natural gas, shale gas has a global reserve of 456 trillion cubic meters, which is 78 trillion cubic meters more than conventional natural gas reserves. Compared with coal and petroleum, shale gas combustion process is cleaner and emits less, so it has good economic and social environmental benefits. The United States is the most successful country in the development of shale gas in the world. If true, the development of shale gas in the United States can be traced back to 1821, but the use of core technologies such as horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing in the past decade has made the development of shale gas in the United States really speed up and benefit. Thanks to the breakthrough of these development technologies, by 2010, the US shale gas production reached 137.9 billion cubic meters, accounting for 23% of the total annual natural gas production in the United States, exceeding the total annual production of natural gas in China; in 2011, the US shale gas production exceeded 1800. Billions of cubic meters, accounting for 34%. The development of shale gas has greatly reduced the price of natural gas in the United States, increased the self-sufficiency rate of energy, and improved the supply pattern of energy. The success of shale gas development in the United States has caused a great deal of concern for shale gas mining and utilization in countries around the world. However, while paying attention to the success of the United States, people often overlook the problems faced by shale gas mining in the United States, especially the negative impact on the environment. In 2011, the most popular environmental problem in the United States was about the environmental damage caused by hydraulic fracturing shale gas. Shale gas wells in some areas have been temporarily closed due to environmental problems. During the investigation of the Marcellus shale gas development process, the United States found that the development of shale gas not only consumes a lot of water resources, but also poses new threats to the local water, atmosphere and other ecological environments. China's technology for developing shale gas may need to be introduced from the United States, so it is very likely that the United States will encounter environmental problems in China. In addition, China's shale gas-rich areas are mainly in the Sichuan Basin, the eastern Hubei and western Hubei, the Xiaoxiang region, the Ordos Basin, and the Tarim Basin. This special geographical distribution also leads to more difficult environmental problems in China's shale gas development than in the United States. To sum up, the environmental problems of shale gas development in China will be mainly reflected in the consumption and pollution of water resources, the geographical environmental conditions of the mining area and the lack of environmental laws and regulations. It is difficult to replicate the shale gas in the United States. It should be said that the most worrying thing about the exploitation of shale gas in China is that we are facing a serious situation of serious shortage of water resources. Most of China's shale gas fields are distributed in areas with severe water shortages. In the Yangtze River basin where water is relatively abundant, shale gas is only found in Sichuan and Jianghan Basins; in the northwest and north China, shale gas reserves are abundant, and local water resources are quite tight. Coupled with the frequent droughts and droughts in the southwestern region in recent years, large-scale development of shale gas may make local water shortages worse. From the perspective of geographical environment, the location of shale gas resources in China may not be suitable for large-scale exploitation of shale gas. Shale gas mining requires a large amount of drilling, about 10 times that of conventional gas reservoirs, and drilling and production operations have a greater impact on the ground. The shale gas distribution area in the United States has superior surface conditions, flat terrain, and sparsely populated areas. Most of China's high-quality shale distribution areas are concentrated in the central and western mountainous areas. The terrain is complex, the terrain is high, the population is densely distributed, and the shale gas is buried. Deeper than the United States. Therefore, these areas may not be suitable for large-scale exploitation of shale gas, otherwise it will affect the normal life of residents, increase the requirements for local infrastructure, economical, and easily lead to geological disasters such as landslides. Therefore, the benefits of shale gas development are many, and the hidden dangers are not small. The huge economic benefits of shale gas make it necessary for us to think about the development of related issues at the beginning of development and avoid repeating the lessons of other resource products.
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